Indoor Air Quality Handbook (Mcgrawhill Engineering Handbook)
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The Current Knowledge around Inpatient Wards As Joseph and Rashid [ 18 ] sustained, the configuration of the inpatient room, as well as the design and health-related trends, is characterized by several factors, which can be divided into environmental dimensional space and design features , management relating to health procedures, cleaning and maintenance activities, etc.
Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. General overview of the existing norms and guidelines related to indoor air. Table 1 General overview of the existing norms and guidelines related to indoor air. Figure 3. Discussion 3. A General Overview of the Systematic Review The focus of the systematic review is related to a specific functional unit of the hospital in which vulnerable users stay for several days and workers operate all year, and the indoor environmental quality IEQ is fundamental. Figure 4. Table 2 Indoor air factors in inpatient room. Criterion Field of interest Influence Focus Design factors They refer to all the components that characterize the inpatient room room dimensions, furniture, finishing, etc.
Their emissions are constant, although in relation to their life, the emissions may decrease over the time i Dimensional aspects, room configuration, and door motion ii Finishing materials and furniture Management and cleaning activities They refer to the management and maintenance activities, ventilation systems, cleaning and disinfectant activities, etc.
In general this component does not affect highly the indoor air performances i Human behavior ii Medical activities iii Medical equipment Outdoor and microclimatic factors They refer to the outdoor air, the solar exposure, and microclimatic parameters Although these factors can vary, they have a great influence on the indoor air and the performances of materials in the room and air fluxes i Outdoor issues and site localization ii Microclimatic parameters iii Solar exposure.
Outdoor and Microclimatic Factors 4. Outdoor Issues and Site Localization In architectures for health, local outdoor sources of air pollution represent a potential threat to IAQ. Microclimatic Parameters The systematic review highlights the role of microclimatic factors. Solar Exposure The scientific community has highlighted, supported by Ulrich's studies and evidence-based design EBD demonstrations [ 21 ], in last decades, the importance of natural lighting and the relationship with external view for patient's psychological and physical well-being [ 42 ].
Management Activities 5. Cleaning and Maintenance Activities Cleaning is the process of identifying, removing, and properly disposing of contaminants from a surface or environment, as Salonen et al. Ventilation Systems Building ventilation systems have the role to provide adequate physical conditions and perceived air quality to users through fresh air supply, heat removal, and pollutant dilutions.
Maintenance and Operational Strategies The relationship between bioaerosol and chemical pollution and ventilation, maintenance, and cleaning activity is fundamental because they could play an important role in pollutant concentrations in hospitals [ 82 ]. Design Factors 6. Dimensional Aspects, Room Configurations, and Door Motion The scientific literature currently does not provide many references in relation to dimensional aspects and room configurations of an inpatient room. Table 3 List of references related simulation analysis.
Reference Topic Bivolarova et al. Finishing Materials and Furniture Although the deterioration of indoor air cannot be attributed to a single cause, another factor is related to materials and furniture. Flooring In healthcare facilities, it is requested to respond to hygienic requirements. Paintings There are numerous nontoxic paints, with zero or low VOC emissions. Wood Natural materials have a positive influence on the well-being, although there is not widespread in healing spaces for hygienic conditions [ ]. Human Presence and Medical Activities 7. The Role of Human Behavior and the Influence of Human Occupancy As several research projects have already stated, the main sources of indoor bioaerosols in healthcare settings include users [ ].
Human Health Status Some recent studies demonstrated that health status of users can affect the indoor air. Medical Activities Starting from the systematic review, several studies have highlighted the influence of some specific medical activities in quality of indoor air. Anesthetic Gases It is well known that anesthetic gases are monitored in hospital settings.
Indoor air quality handbook - John D. Spengler, Jonathan M. Samet, John F. McCarthy - كتب Google
Future Perspectives Currently, several studies are considering the introduction of personal wearable pollution devices [ ] that embed some sensors for environmental parameters, cardio and respiratory signals of users, pollution concentrations as the pump test , etc. Conclusions The systematic review gives rise to a broad scenario on the existing knowledge regarding the indoor air pollution and design and management strategies.
Data Availability The data used to support the findings of this study are included within the article and the reference list. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper. Authors' Contributions All authors contributed equally to this work. References 1. Nightingale F. Appleton and Company; Capolongo S. Architecture as a generator of health and well-being. Journal of Public Health Research.
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Salonen H. Positive impacts of environmental characteristics on health and wellbeing in health-care facilities: a review. Principi guida tecnici, organizzativi e gestionali per la realizzazione e gestione di ospedali ad alta tecnologia e assistenza. Ventilation of health care facilities. Geshwiler M. Sehulster L. Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning applications.