Virginia at War, 1862

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To round out this volume, indefatigable Richmond diarist Judith McGuire continues her day-by-day reflections on life during wartime. The second in a five-volume series examining each year of the war, Virginia at War, illuminates the happenings on both homefront and battlefield in the state that served as the crucible of America's greatest internal conflict.

William C. James I. Robertson Jr. He is the author or editor of more than two dozen books, including the award-winning Stonewall Jackson: The Man, the Soldier, the Legend. He was the chief historical consultant for the movie Gods and Generals. See All Customer Reviews.

Shop Books. Read an excerpt of this book! Add to Wishlist. USD Buy Online, Pick up in Store is currently unavailable, but this item may be available for in-store purchase. Sign in to Purchase Instantly. Overview As the Civil War entered its first full calendar year for the Old Dominion, Virginians began to experience the full ramifications of the conflict.

Product Details About the Author. About the Author William C. Average Review. Write a Review. Related Searches. Alvin C. The Reconstruction era — represented a difficult period of adjustment for both white and black Virginians. Pierpont had created a new state constitution that freed Virginia's slaves and took away rights from many men who had served the Confederacy.

It remained in effect until voters ratified the Underwood Constitution in African American men were able to vote at first, but over the next fifty years they mostly lost that and many other civil rights while often being subjected to violence. The Virginia Constitutional Convention of — , in particular, disfranchised most blacks through such measures as poll taxes.

Meanwhile, Jim Crow laws and later the Racial Integrity Laws ensured that Virginia was a strictly segregated society where freedom won in the Civil War did not translate into equal rights. This view of the war argued that Confederates had fought to defend states' rights, not slavery. In fact, Lost Cause advocates claimed that slaves had been loyal servants, many of whom hoped for Confederate independence.

The Lost Cause view also argued that despite the efforts of brave Southern men and noble Southern women, the South lost the war because the Union army was larger and better equipped and its generals more willing to let their men die. Historians have responded that some Lost Cause claims are true while many are not. Still, the Lost Cause has had two critical legacies: it helped whites in the North and South reconcile after the war and, for some, helped to justify white supremacy in the South.

Many Virginians worked hard to commemorate the efforts of soldiers and civilians.

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Lexington even built Lee Chapel , where the general was buried. Virginia women formed Ladies' Memorial Associations that identified and buried Confederate dead. Later, the battlefields where Union and Confederate soldiers died were preserved as parks, while museums, like the Museum of the Confederacy in Richmond, were also established.

Finally, veterans of the war organized into groups such as the Sons of Confederate Veterans and many became important state and national leaders. Fitzhugh Lee , Robert E. Lee's nephew and a former Confederate general, served as Virginia governor from until William Mahone , also a former Confederate general, became a railroad executive and leader of the biracial Readjuster Party. He served in the U.

Another important U. Although Martin missed the battle, he became one of Virginia's most powerful politicians. The American Civil War continues to be debated in Virginia—in arguments over the Lost Cause, slavery, and states' rights; in novels from The Fathers and Sapphira and the Slave Girl to The Known World ; and in discussions of how best to remember the era, either during the Civil War Centennial — or, later, the Civil War Sesquicentennial — Although many Virginians identify passionately with the war and its symbols, the conflict's meaning is far from settled. Wolfe, B. The American Civil War in Virginia.

In Encyclopedia Virginia. Wolfe, Brendan. Virginia Foundation for the Humanities, 26 Jun. Thank you! Thanks to your advocacy efforts on our behalf, we're happy to report that the recently passed Omnibus Spending Bill includes a very small increase in funding for the National Endowment for the Humanities!

While our work is not over with regards to the upcoming budget to be passed in the fall, the Omnibus Spending Bill represents an endorsement of the important work that the humanities do for our communities.

Timeline: Civil War and National Cemeteries (1862)

These funds will continue to support our work of providing free access to authoritative content about Virginia's history and culture. Before the War In October , a small band of white and black men, led by John Brown , attacked the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry in an attempt to start a slave rebellion. Arsenal there in an attempt to start a slave rebellion. Five men are killed four white and one black. Lee, capture Brown, who is. December 2, - After a gripping trial held in Charles Town in which John Brown is found guilty of conspiracy, of inciting servile insurrection, and of treason against the state, he is hanged.

He wins 1 percent of the vote in Virginia.

Project MUSE - Virginia at War,

Breckinridge wins the trans-Allegheny counties of western Virginia. April 12, - G. The Union garrison is evacuated the next day.


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April 15, - In response to the firing on Fort Sumter, President Abraham Lincoln issues a call for 75, troops—2, of which are to come from Virginia—"to execute the laws of the Union, suppress insurrections, repel invasions. April 17, - Delegates at the Virginia Convention in Richmond pass an Ordinance of Secession by a vote of 88 to Thirty-two of the "no" votes come from trans-Allegheny delegates, who are more firmly Unionist than representatives from other parts of the state. May 23, - The Ordinance of Secession is approved by Virginia voters by a vote of , to 20,, with many western Virginia votes being discarded from the tally.

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May 27, - Union general Benjamin F. Butler, the commander at Fort Monroe, announces that he will not return fugitive slaves to bondage. Fort Monroe becomes known as "Freedom's Fortress," and a steady stream of "contraband" offered wages, food, and shelter, begins work for the Union army. Confederate troops under Joseph E. Beauregard decisively defeat Union forces commanded by Irvin McDowell.

McClellan leads the Army of the Potomac toward the Confederate capital at Richmond from the southeast. April 16, - The Confederate Congress passes the first Conscription Act, making all white males between the ages of eighteen and thirty-five eligible to be drafted into military service. This is the first such draft in U. Lee defeats George B. McClellan in a series of fierce engagements. September 17, - In the bloodiest single day of the war, George B.

McClellan attacks Confederates under Robert E. Lee at Antietam Creek in Maryland. The battle ends in a stalemate, but Lee is forced to retreat south to Virginia. December 13, - Confederate general Robert E. Burnside and the Army of the Potomac at the Battle of Fredericksburg in one of the most lopsided defeats of the war. January 1, - Abraham Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation, declaring free all slaves in Confederate-controlled regions and authorizing the enlistment of black men in the Union army.

Lee and Thomas J. July 1—3, - Union general George G. Meade defeats Robert E. April 7, - The Virginia Convention, comprised of seventeen delegates called by the Restored government of Virginia, votes 13 to 4 to adopt the new constitution and consequently to put it in force. May 5—June 3, - Ulysses S. Grant, the Union's new general-in-chief, directs the Army of the Potomac south toward Richmond. Bloody and largely inconclusive fights at the Wilderness and Spotsylvania, along the North Anna River, and at Cold Harbor result in Grant's army's taking up siege positions before Petersburg.

Forty-seven are wounded and ten killed in the Confederate victory. June 9, - Fletcher H.


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Archer leads his Virginia Reserves in a successful defense of Petersburg against a Union cavalry attack in what comes to be known as the Battle of Old Men and Young Boys. June 11—14, - Union general David Hunter's forces shell Lexington and burn the Virginia Military Institute before occupying the town for several days during the Shenandoah Valley Campaign of June 15, —April 2, - Union general Ulysses S. Grant lays siege to Petersburg, south of Richmond, for ten months, finally breaking through Robert E.

Lee's lines at the Battle of Five Forks. Petersburg and Richmond immediately fall and Lee retreats to the west.

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January 31, - The U. Congress passes the Thirteenth Amendment to the U. Constitution by a vote of to The amendment abolishes slavery. Lee loses 20 percent of his army, most of it captured, including nine generals.